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Effects and Mechanisms of Total Flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. on Skin Wound in Rats

1,2,3,4,†, 1,2,†, 1,2,*, 3,4, 3,4, 3,4, 3,4, 3,4, 3,4, 3,4 and 3,4
National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
Center for Post-Doctoral Research, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou 571737, China
Hainan Provincial Engineering Research Center for Blumea Balsamifera, Danzhou 571737, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2766;
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 2018)
PDF [11119 KB, uploaded 19 December 2017]


Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) evolved through thousands of years of practice and was popular not only among the Chinese population, but also most countries in the world. Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. as a traditional treatment for wound healing in Li Nationality Medicine has a long history of nearly 2000 years. This study was to evaluate the effects of total flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. on skin excisional wound on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, reveal its chemical constitution, and postulate its action mechanism. The rats were divided into five groups and the model groups were treated with 30% glycerol, the positive control groups with Jing Wan Hong (JWH) ointment, and three treatment groups with high dose (2.52 g·kg−1), medium dose (1.26 g·kg−1), and low dose (0.63 g·kg−1) of total flavonoids from B. balsamifera. During 10 consecutive days of treatment, the therapeutic effects of rates were evaluated. On day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, and day 10 after treatment, skin samples were taken from all the rats for further study. Significant increases of granulation tissue, fibroblast, and capillary vessel proliferation were observed at day 7 in the high dose and positive control groups, compared with the model group, with the method of 4% paraformaldehyde for histopathological examination and immunofluorescence staining. To reveal the action mechanisms of total flavonoids on wound healing, the levels of CD68, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and hydroxyproline were measured at different days. Results showed that total flavonoids had significant effects on rat skin excisional wound healing compared with controls, especially high dose ones (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the total flavonoid extract was investigated phytochemically, and twenty-seven compounds were identified from the total flavonoid sample by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry/diode array detector (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/DAD), including 16 flavonoid aglucons, five flavonoid glycosides (main peaks in chromatogram), five chlorogenic acid analogs, and 1 coumarin. Reports show that flavonoid glycoside possesses therapeutic effects of curing wounds by inducing neovascularization, and chlorogenic acid also has anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities; we postulated that all the ingredients in total flavonoids sample maybe exert a synergetic effect on wound curing. Accompanied with detection of four growth factors, the upregulation of these key growth factors may be the mechanism of therapeutic activities of total flavonoids. The present study confirmed undoubtedly that flavonoids were the main active constituents that contribute to excisional wound healing, and suggested its action mechanism of improving expression levels of growth factors at different healing phases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.; total flavonoids; skin wound; VEGF; TGF-β1 Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.; total flavonoids; skin wound; VEGF; TGF-β1

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Pang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, L.; Xu, L.; Wang, K.; Wang, D.; Guan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, F.; Chen, Z.; Xie, X. Effects and Mechanisms of Total Flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. on Skin Wound in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2766.

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