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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2720;

Ophthalmic Formulation Containing Nilvadipine Nanoparticles Prevents Retinal Dysfunction in Rats Injected with Streptozotocin

Faculty of Pharmacy, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512, Japan
Laboratory of Molecularbiology and Histochemistry, Fujita Health University Institute of Joint Research, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake, Toyoake 470-1192, Aichi, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Retinopathy leads to irreparable vision loss via capillary closure and areas of nonperfusion. However, the current instillation systems do not allow a sufficient amount of drug required to treat retinopathy to reach the posterior segment (retina); therefore, a new formulation targeting the posterior segment is expected as therapy for retinopathy. We prepared ophthalmic formulations containing nilvadipine nanoparticles (NILnano), and demonstrated whether the instillation of NILnano can prevent retinal dysfunction in rats injected with excessive streptozotocin (STZ rats) in this study. NILnano (mean particle size, 77 nm) was prepared by wet bead mill treatment, with the inclusion of various additives (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, benzalkonium chloride, d-mannitol, and methylcellulose). Retinal dysfunction was observable two weeks after rats received intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg × 2, consecutive days, STZ rat). Changes in retinal function were evaluated by electroretinogram (ERG) and immunological methods. The retinal thickness, measured as the distance between the ganglion cell layer and the distal border of the outer nuclear layer, increased two weeks after the injection of streptozotocin, resulting in decreases in the levels of a-waves, b-waves, and oscillatory potential amplitudes in ERG of rats. The instillation of NILnano allowed the topical supplement of nilvadipine into the retina, and repeated instillation of NILnano (2 times/day) attenuated the retinal disorders led by the excessive streptozotocin. In conclusion, we found that retinal dysfunction in rats injected with streptozotocin can be prevented by the NILnano instillation. These results are useful in further studies aimed at the therapeutic treatment of retinopathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; nilvadipine; retina; electroretinogram; streptozotocin nanoparticle; nilvadipine; retina; electroretinogram; streptozotocin

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Deguchi, S.; Otake, H.; Nakazawa, Y.; Hiramatsu, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Nagai, N. Ophthalmic Formulation Containing Nilvadipine Nanoparticles Prevents Retinal Dysfunction in Rats Injected with Streptozotocin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2720.

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