Next Article in Journal
α-Ketoglutarate Promotes Pancreatic Progenitor-Like Cell Proliferation
Next Article in Special Issue
Potential Interplay between Hyperosmolarity and Inflammation on Retinal Pigmented Epithelium in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy
Previous Article in Journal
Phytochemicals in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment: An Updated Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ophthalmic Formulation Containing Nilvadipine Nanoparticles Prevents Retinal Dysfunction in Rats Injected with Streptozotocin
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

1
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
2
Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040942
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
  |  
PDF [1541 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness among the working-age population. For decades, diabetic retinopathy was considered only a microvascular complication, but the retinal microvasculature is intimately associated with and governed by neurons and glia, which are affected even prior to clinically detectable vascular lesions. While progress has been made to improve the vascular alterations, there is still no treatment to counteract the early neuro-glial perturbations in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia along with dyslipidemia, hypoinsulinemia and hypertension. Increasing evidence points to inflammation as one key player in diabetes-associated retinal perturbations, however, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Interlinked molecular pathways, such as oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation end-products and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor have received a lot of attention as they all contribute to the inflammatory response. In the current review, we focus on the involvement of inflammation in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy with special emphasis on the functional relationships between glial cells and neurons. Finally, we summarize recent advances using novel targets to inhibit inflammation in diabetic retinopathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; neuroprotection; inflammation; neurodegeneration; pathophysiology; microglia; astrocytes; Müller glial cells; crystallins diabetic retinopathy; neuroprotection; inflammation; neurodegeneration; pathophysiology; microglia; astrocytes; Müller glial cells; crystallins
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rübsam, A.; Parikh, S.; Fort, P.E. Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 942.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top