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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122679

An Oldie but Goodie: Lithium in the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder through Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Mechanisms

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract

Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for the last sixty or more years, and recent studies with more reliable designs and updated guidelines have recommended lithium to be the treatment of choice for acute manic, mixed and depressive episodes of BD, along with long-term prophylaxis. Lithium’s specific mechanism of action in mood regulation is progressively being clarified, such as the direct inhibition on glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and its various effects on neurotrophic factors, neurotransmitters, oxidative metabolism, apoptosis, second messenger systems, and biological systems are also being revealed. Furthermore, lithium has been proposed to exert its treatment effects through mechanisms associated with neuronal plasticity. In this review, we have overviewed the clinical aspects of lithium use for BD, and have focused on the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of lithium. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium; bipolar disorder; therapeutic mechanism lithium; bipolar disorder; therapeutic mechanism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Won, E.; Kim, Y.-K. An Oldie but Goodie: Lithium in the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder through Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2679.

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