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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2637; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122637

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2, and Cytokine Production of Mouse and Human Macrophages Are Suppressed by Pheophytin-b

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Sepsis Research Center, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
4
School of Medical and Health Sciences, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan
5
Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract

Sepsis is an overwhelming systemic response to infection that frequently results in tissue damage, organ failure, and even death. Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokine overproduction are thought to be associated with the immunostimulatory cascade in sepsis. In the present study, we analyzed the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the pheophytin-b on both RAW 264.7 murine macrophage and purified human CD14+ monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and elucidated the mechanisms by analyzing the cell signaling pathways known to be activated in sepsis. Pheophytin-b suppressed the overexpression of NO, PGE2, and cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages without inducing cytotoxicity. It also reduced NOS2 and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels. The inhibitory effects on NO, PGE2, and cytokine overproduction arose from the suppression of STAT-1 and PI3K/Akt pathways; no changes in NF-κB, MAPK, and AP-1 signaling were detected. Thus, pheophytin-b may represent a potential candidate to beneficially modulate the inflammatory response in sepsis. View Full-Text
Keywords: pheophytin-b; nitric oxide; prostaglandin E2; cytokine; macrophages; lipopolysaccharide pheophytin-b; nitric oxide; prostaglandin E2; cytokine; macrophages; lipopolysaccharide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lin, C.-Y.; Wang, W.-H.; Chen, S.-H.; Chang, Y.-W.; Hung, L.-C.; Chen, C.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2, and Cytokine Production of Mouse and Human Macrophages Are Suppressed by Pheophytin-b. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2637.

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