Next Article in Journal
Role of Transforming Growth Factor β in Uterine Fibroid Biology
Previous Article in Journal
Dysregulated Collagen Homeostasis by Matrix Stiffening and TGF-β1 in Fibroblasts from Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients: Role of FAK/Akt
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2432;

A Genomic Survey of SCPP Family Genes in Fishes Provides Novel Insights into the Evolution of Fish Scales

BGI Education Center, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518083, China
Shenzhen Key Lab of Marine Genomics, Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Molecular Breeding in Marine Economic Animals, BGI Academy of Marine Sciences, BGI Marine, BGI, Shenzhen 518083, China
Department of Anthropology, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Laboratory of Aquatic Genomics, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2768 KB, uploaded 16 November 2017]   |  


The family of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) have been considered vital to skeletal tissue mineralization. However, most previous SCPP studies focused on phylogenetically distant animals but not on those closely related species. Here we provide novel insights into the coevolution of SCPP genes and fish scales in 10 species from Otophysi. According to their scale phenotypes, these fishes can be divided into three groups, i.e., scaled, sparsely scaled, and scaleless. We identified homologous SCPP genes in the genomes of these species and revealed an absence of some SCPP members in some genomes, suggesting an uneven evolutionary history of SCPP genes in fishes. In addition, most of these SCPP genes, with the exception of SPP1, individually form one or two gene cluster(s) on each corresponding genome. Furthermore, we constructed phylogenetic trees using maximum likelihood method to estimate their evolution. The phylogenetic topology mostly supports two subclasses in some species, such as Cyprinus carpio, Sinocyclocheilus anshuiensis, S. grahamin, and S. rhinocerous, but not in the other examined fishes. By comparing the gene structures of recently reported candidate genes, SCPP1 and SCPP5, for determining scale phenotypes, we found that the hypothesis is suitable for Astyanax mexicanus, but denied by S. anshuiensis, even though they are both sparsely scaled for cave adaptation. Thus, we conclude that, although different fish species display similar scale phenotypes, the underlying genetic changes however might be diverse. In summary, this paper accelerates the recognition of the SCPP family in teleosts for potential scale evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: SCPP gene; evolution; scale; cavefish; mutation SCPP gene; evolution; scale; cavefish; mutation

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lv, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Bian, C.; Huang, Y.; You, X.; Shi, Q. A Genomic Survey of SCPP Family Genes in Fishes Provides Novel Insights into the Evolution of Fish Scales. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2432.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top