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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2435;

Role of Transforming Growth Factor β in Uterine Fibroid Biology

First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, 00-416 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-513 Poznan, Poland
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-210 Gdansk, Poland
INVICTA Fertility and Reproductive Center, 80-172 Gdansk, Poland
Students’ Scientific Association at the I Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-015 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta Family in Fibrosis and Cancer)
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Uterine fibroids (UFs) are benign tumors of the female genital tract made of the smooth muscle of the uterus. UF growth depends mostly on the influence of the steroid hormones and selected growth factors. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-βs) is a polypeptide that consists of three isoforms: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. At present, TGF-β is considered to be one of the key factors in the pathophysiology of UFs. It plays a major role in cellular migration within the tumor, stimulates tumor growth, and enhances tumor metabolism. As a consequence of various dependencies, the synthesis and release of TGF-β in a UF tumor is increased, which results in excessive extracellular matrix production and storage. High concentrations or overexpression of TGF-β mediators may be responsible for clinically symptomatic UFs. The aim of this review was to check the available evidence for the influence of the TGF-β family on UF biology. We conducted their search in PubMed of the National Library of Medicine with the use of the following selected keywords: “uterine fibroid”, “leiomyoma”, and “transforming growth factor β”. After reviewing the titles and abstracts, more than 115 full articles were evaluated. We focused on the TGF-β-related molecular aspects and their influence on the most common symptoms that are associated with UFs. Also, we described how the available data might implicate the current medical management of UFs. View Full-Text
Keywords: uterine fibroid; leiomyoma; transforming growth factor β; pathophysiology; therapy uterine fibroid; leiomyoma; transforming growth factor β; pathophysiology; therapy

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ciebiera, M.; Włodarczyk, M.; Wrzosek, M.; Męczekalski, B.; Nowicka, G.; Łukaszuk, K.; Ciebiera, M.; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, A.; Jakiel, G. Role of Transforming Growth Factor β in Uterine Fibroid Biology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2435.

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