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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112430

Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Emerging Applications in Medical Imaging, Nanotechnology, Neurosciences, and Drug Delivery

1
Institut Pasteur, Department of Structural Biology and Chemistry, Laboratory for Bioorganic Chemistry of Nucleic Acids, CNRS UMR3523, 28, rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15, France
2
Institute of Systems & Synthetic Biology, Xenome Team, 5 rue Henri Desbruères Genopole Campus 1, University of Evry, F-91030 Evry, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamers)
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Abstract

Recent progresses in organic chemistry and molecular biology have allowed the emergence of numerous new applications of nucleic acids that markedly deviate from their natural functions. Particularly, DNA and RNA molecules—coined aptamers—can be brought to bind to specific targets with high affinity and selectivity. While aptamers are mainly applied as biosensors, diagnostic agents, tools in proteomics and biotechnology, and as targeted therapeutics, these chemical antibodies slowly begin to be used in other fields. Herein, we review recent progress on the use of aptamers in the construction of smart DNA origami objects and MRI and PET imaging agents. We also describe advances in the use of aptamers in the field of neurosciences (with a particular emphasis on the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases) and as drug delivery systems. Lastly, the use of chemical modifications, modified nucleoside triphosphate particularly, to enhance the binding and stability of aptamers is highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamers; systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX); modified triphosphates; medical imaging; drug delivery; gene regulation; DNA origami; neurodegenerative diseases aptamers; systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX); modified triphosphates; medical imaging; drug delivery; gene regulation; DNA origami; neurodegenerative diseases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Röthlisberger, P.; Gasse, C.; Hollenstein, M. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Emerging Applications in Medical Imaging, Nanotechnology, Neurosciences, and Drug Delivery. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2430.

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