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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2354;

miRNAs, Melanoma and Microenvironment: An Intricate Network

Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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miRNAs are central players in cancer biology and they play a pivotal role in mediating the network communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment. In melanoma, miRNAs can impair or facilitate a wide array of processes, and here we will focus on: the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the immune milieu, and metabolism. Multiple miRNAs can affect the EMT process, even at a distance, for example through exosome-mediated mechanisms. miRNAs also strongly act on some components of the immune system, regulating the activity of key elements such as antigen presenting cells, and can facilitate an immune evasive/suppressive phenotype. miRNAs are also involved in the regulation of metabolic processes, specifically in response to hypoxic stimuli where they can mediate the metabolic switch from an oxidative to a glycolytic metabolism. Overall, this review discusses and summarizes recent findings on miRNA regulation in the melanoma tumor microenvironment, analyzing their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA; melanoma; tumor microenvironment; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); immune system; hypoxia; metabolism miRNA; melanoma; tumor microenvironment; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); immune system; hypoxia; metabolism

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Romano, G.; Kwong, L.N. miRNAs, Melanoma and Microenvironment: An Intricate Network. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2354.

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