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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102216

The Role of MDM2 in Promoting Genome Stability versus Instability

1
Department of Pediatrics (Division of Hematology/Oncology), Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
2
Herman B. Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
3
Goodman Campbell Brain and Spine, Indianapolis, IN 46032, USA
4
Herman B. Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, 1044 West Walnut Street R4 302, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5525, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Leading to Genomic Instability)
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Abstract

In cancer, the mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) is an oncoprotein that contributes to the promotion of cell growth, survival, invasion, and therapeutic resistance. The impact of MDM2 on cell survival versus cell death is complex and dependent on levels of MDM2 isoforms, p53 status, and cellular context. Extensive investigations have demonstrated that MDM2 protein–protein interactions with p53 and other p53 family members (p63 and p73) block their ability to function as transcription factors that regulate cell growth and survival. Upon genotoxic insults, a dynamic and intricately regulated DNA damage response circuitry is activated leading to release of p53 from MDM2 and activation of cell cycle arrest. What ensues following DNA damage, depends on the extent of DNA damage and if the cell has sufficient DNA repair capacity. The well-known auto-regulatory loop between p53-MDM2 provides an additional layer of control as the cell either repairs DNA damage and survives (i.e., MDM2 re-engages with p53), or undergoes cell death (i.e., MDM2 does not re-engage p53). Furthermore, the decision to live or die is also influenced by chromatin-localized MDM2 which directly interacts with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex and inhibits DNA damage-sensing giving rise to the potential for increased genome instability and cellular transformation. View Full-Text
Keywords: MDM2; p53; DNA damage; genome instability MDM2; p53; DNA damage; genome instability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Saadatzadeh, M.R.; Elmi, A.N.; Pandya, P.H.; Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, K.; Ding, J.; Stamatkin, C.W.; Cohen-Gadol, A.A.; Pollok, K.E. The Role of MDM2 in Promoting Genome Stability versus Instability. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2216.

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