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Open AccessArticle

Hydrogen Gas Is Involved in Auxin-Induced Lateral Root Formation by Modulating Nitric Oxide Synthesis

1
College of Life Sciences, Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Wuhan Shizhen Water Structure Research Institute Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430200, China
3
Xinjiang Hongsheng Kangtong Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Xinjiang 830022, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102084
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
Metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2) in bacteria and algae has been widely studied, and it has attracted increasing attention in the context of animals and plants. However, the role of endogenous H2 in lateral root (LR) formation is still unclear. Here, our results showed that H2-induced lateral root formation is a universal event. Naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA; the auxin analog) was able to trigger endogenous H2 production in tomato seedlings, and a contrasting response was observed in the presence of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor. NPA-triggered the inhibition of H2 production and thereafter lateral root development was rescued by exogenously applied H2. Detection of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) by the specific probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analyses revealed that the NO level was increased in both NAA- and H2-treated tomato seedlings. Furthermore, NO production and thereafter LR formation induced by auxin and H2 were prevented by 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO; a specific scavenger of NO) and the inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR; an important NO synthetic enzyme). Molecular evidence confirmed that some representative NO-targeted cell cycle regulatory genes were also induced by H2, but was impaired by the removal of endogenous NO. Genetic evidence suggested that in the presence of H2, Arabidopsis mutants nia2 (in particular) and nia1 (two nitrate reductases (NR)-defective mutants) exhibited defects in lateral root length. Together, these results demonstrated that auxin-induced H2 production was associated with lateral root formation, at least partially via a NR-dependent NO synthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: H2; auxin; lateral root formation; NO; nitrate reductase H2; auxin; lateral root formation; NO; nitrate reductase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, Z.; Duan, X.; Yao, P.; Cui, W.; Cheng, D.; Zhang, J.; Jin, Q.; Chen, J.; Dai, T.; Shen, W. Hydrogen Gas Is Involved in Auxin-Induced Lateral Root Formation by Modulating Nitric Oxide Synthesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2084.

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