Autocrine and Paracrine Mechanisms Promoting Chemoresistance in Cholangiocarcinoma
AbstractResistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, a typical feature of cholangiocarcinoma, prevents the efficacy of the therapeutic arsenal usually used to combat malignancy in humans. Mechanisms of chemoresistance by neoplastic cholangiocytes include evasion of drug-induced apoptosis mediated by autocrine and paracrine cues released in the tumor microenvironment. Here, recent evidence regarding molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance is reviewed, as well as associations between well-developed chemoresistance and activation of the cancer stem cell compartment. It is concluded that improved understanding of the complex interplay between apoptosis signaling and the promotion of cell survival represent potentially productive areas for active investigation, with the ultimate aim of encouraging future studies to unveil new, effective strategies able to overcome current limitations on treatment. View Full-Text
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Cadamuro, M.; Brivio, S.; Spirli, C.; Joplin, R.E.; Strazzabosco, M.; Fabris, L. Autocrine and Paracrine Mechanisms Promoting Chemoresistance in Cholangiocarcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 149.
Cadamuro M, Brivio S, Spirli C, Joplin RE, Strazzabosco M, Fabris L. Autocrine and Paracrine Mechanisms Promoting Chemoresistance in Cholangiocarcinoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(1):149.Chicago/Turabian Style
Cadamuro, Massimiliano; Brivio, Simone; Spirli, Carlo; Joplin, Ruth E.; Strazzabosco, Mario; Fabris, Luca. 2017. "Autocrine and Paracrine Mechanisms Promoting Chemoresistance in Cholangiocarcinoma." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 1: 149.
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