Next Article in Journal
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination
Next Article in Special Issue
Biglycan- and Sphingosine Kinase-1 Signaling Crosstalk Regulates the Synthesis of Macrophage Chemoattractants
Previous Article in Journal
MicroRNA-29a Alleviates Bile Duct Ligation Exacerbation of Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice through Epigenetic Control of Methyltransferases
Previous Article in Special Issue
R-Flurbiprofen Traps Prostaglandins within Cells by Inhibition of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein-4
Open AccessArticle

Ketamine Analog Methoxetamine Induced Inflammation and Dysfunction of Bladder in Rats

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Irmgard Tegeder
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 117;
Received: 22 October 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain and Inflammation)
The novel synthetic psychoactive ketamine analog methoxetamine is reportedly being used for recreational purposes. As ketamine use can result in urinary dysfunction, we conducted the present study to investigate how methoxetamine affects the bladder. A cystometry investigation showed that female Sprague-Dawley rats experienced increased micturition frequency bladder dysfunction after receiving a daily intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg methoxetamine or ketamine for periods of 4 or 12 weeks. Histologic examinations of rat bladder tissue revealed damaged urothelium barriers, as well as evidence of inflammatory cell infiltration and matrix deposition. The drug-treated rats showed significantly upregulated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, CCL-2, CXCL-1, CXCL-10, NGF, and COX-2. In addition, interstitial fibrosis was confirmed by increased levels of collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin and TGF-β. Besides direct toxic effect on human urothelial cells, methoxetaminealso induced the upregulation related cytokines. Our results indicate that long term methoxetamine treatment can induce bladder dysfunction and inflammation in rats. Methoxetamine was confirmed to produce direct toxic and pro-inflammatory effects on human urothelial cells. Methoxetamine-associated bladder impairment may be similar to ketamine-induced cystitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: methoxetamine; bladder dysfunction; cystitis; cytokines; ketamine methoxetamine; bladder dysfunction; cystitis; cytokines; ketamine
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Q.; Wu, Q.; Wang, J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, G.; Chen, J.; Zhao, J.; Wu, P. Ketamine Analog Methoxetamine Induced Inflammation and Dysfunction of Bladder in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 117.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop