Next Article in Journal
Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica
Previous Article in Journal
Apoptosis in Porcine Pluripotent Cells: From ICM to iPSCs
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1532;

A Protocol to Enhance INS1E and MIN6 Functionality—The Use of Theophylline

Developmental BioEngineering, MIRA Institute of Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede 7522 NB, The Netherlands
Department of Complex Tissue Regeneration, MERLN Institute for Technology Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masatoshi Maki
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 12 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1247 KB, uploaded 12 September 2016]   |  


In vitro research in the field of type I diabetes is frequently limited by the availability of a functional model for islets of Langerhans. This method shows that by the addition of theophylline to the glucose buffers, mouse insulinoma MIN6 and rat insulinoma INS1E pseudo-islets can serve as a model for islets of Langerhans for in vitro research. The effect of theophylline is dose- and cell line-dependent, resulting in a minimal stimulation index of five followed by a rapid return to baseline insulin secretion by reducing glucose concentrations after a first high glucose stimulation. This protocol solves issues concerning in vitro research for type I diabetes as donors and the availability of primary islets of Langerhans are limited. To avoid the limitations of using human donor material, cell lines represent a valid alternative. Many different β cell lines have been reported, but the lack of reproducible responsiveness to glucose stimulation remains a challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell lines; insulin secretion in vitro; assay methods cell lines; insulin secretion in vitro; assay methods

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Groot Nibbelink, M.; Marchioli, G.; Moroni, L.; Karperien, M.; Van Apeldoorn, A. A Protocol to Enhance INS1E and MIN6 Functionality—The Use of Theophylline. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1532.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top