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Retraction published on 28 July 2017, see Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1642.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1289;

Advanced Glycation End-Products Enhance Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Migration

Department of Respiratory Therapy, China Medical University, 40402 Taichung City, Taiwan
Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, 40402 Taichung City, Taiwan
Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, 40402 Taichung City, Taiwan
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, 41354 Taichung City, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Molecular Oncology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1919 KB, uploaded 28 July 2017]   |  


Effects of carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine, two advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), upon invasion and migration in A549 and Calu-6 cells, two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines were examined. CML or pentosidine at 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 μmol/L were added into cells. Proliferation, invasion and migration were measured. CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L promoted invasion and migration in both cell lines, and increased the production of reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-β1. CML or pentosidine at 2–16 μmol/L up-regulated the protein expression of AGE receptor, p47phox, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin in test NSCLC cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 protein expression in A549 and Calu-6 cells was increased by CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L. These two AGEs at 2–16 μmol/L enhanced nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κ B) p65 protein expression and p38 phosphorylation in A549 cells. However, CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L up-regulated NF-κB p65 and p-p38 protein expression in Calu-6 cells. These findings suggest that CML and pentosidine, by promoting the invasion, migration and production of associated factors, benefit NSCLC metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: CML; pentosidine; non-small cell lung cancer; migration; invasion CML; pentosidine; non-small cell lung cancer; migration; invasion

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Hsia, T.-C.; Yin, M.-C.; Mong, M.-C. Advanced Glycation End-Products Enhance Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Migration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1289.

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