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Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications

College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Jongro-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea
Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13620, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manickam Sugumaran
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 824;
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 14 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry and Mechanisms of Melanogenesis)
Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: basement membrane; histopathology; mast cells; melasma; photoaging; vascularization basement membrane; histopathology; mast cells; melasma; photoaging; vascularization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kwon, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-K.; Park, K.-C. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 824.

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