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Open AccessArticle

Exogenous C2 Ceramide Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Expression by Inhibiting ROS Production and MAPK Signaling Pathways in PMA-Stimulated Human Astroglioma Cells

1
Department of Molecular Medicine and Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 07985, Korea
2
Department of Surgery, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 07985, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masatoshi Maki
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040477
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 24 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metalloproteins)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, which play a pivotal role in invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of glioma. Therefore, controlling MMPs is potentially an important therapeutic strategy for glioma. In the present study, we found that exogenous cell-permeable short-chain C2 ceramide inhibits phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-1, -3, and -9 gene expressions in U87MG and U373MG human astroglioma cells. In addition, C2 ceramide inhibited the protein secretion and enzymatic activities of MMP-1, -3, and -9. The Matrigel invasion assay and wound healing assay showed that C2 ceramide suppresses the in vitro invasion and migration of glioma cells, which appears to be involved in strong inhibition of MMPs by C2 ceramide. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that C2 ceramide inhibits PMA-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB/activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, C2 ceramide significantly inhibited PMA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, and inhibition of ROS by diphenylene iodonium (DPI, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) mimicked the effects of C2 ceramide on MMP expression and NF-κB/AP-1 via inhibition of p38 MAPK. The results suggest C2 ceramide inhibits MMP expression and glioma invasion, at least partly, by modulating ROS-p38 MAPK signaling axis and other MAPK signaling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: C2 ceramide; astroglioma; invasion; MMP; signaling mechanism C2 ceramide; astroglioma; invasion; MMP; signaling mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, J.-S.; Ahn, Y.-H.; Moon, B.-I.; Kim, H.-S. Exogenous C2 Ceramide Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Expression by Inhibiting ROS Production and MAPK Signaling Pathways in PMA-Stimulated Human Astroglioma Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 477.

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