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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 349;

MicroRNAs in Osteoclastogenesis and Function: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Osteoporosis

Laboratory of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 610041 Chengdu, China
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nalini Santanam and William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 5 February 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Abnormal osteoclast formation and resorption play a fundamental role in osteoporosis pathogenesis. Over the past two decades, much progress has been made to target osteoclasts. The existing therapeutic drugs include bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin and receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-κB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor (denosumab), etc. Among them, bisphosphonates are most widely used due to their low price and high efficiency in reducing the risk of fracture. However, bisphosphonates still have their limitations, such as the gastrointestinal side-effects, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atypical subtrochanteric fracture. Based on the current situation, research for new drugs to regulate bone resorption remains relevant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new group of small, noncoding RNAs of 19–25 nucleotides, which negatively regulate gene expression after transcription. Recent studies discovered miRNAs play a considerable function in bone remodeling by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function. An increasing number of miRNAs have been identified to participate in osteoclast formation, differentiation, apoptosis, and resorption. miRNAs show great promise to serve as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of how miRNAs regulate osteoclastogenesis and function. We will further discuss the approach to develop drugs for osteoporosis based on these miRNA networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNAs; osteoclasts; osteoclastogenesis; bone resorption; osteoporosis microRNAs; osteoclasts; osteoclastogenesis; bone resorption; osteoporosis

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Ji, X.; Chen, X.; Yu, X. MicroRNAs in Osteoclastogenesis and Function: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Osteoporosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 349.

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