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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2063;

The Roles of Autophagy and the Inflammasome during Environmental Stress-Triggered Skin Inflammation

1,2,3,4,* and 1,5,6,*
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70428, Taiwan
Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan 70428, Taiwan
Department of Cosmetic Science and Institute of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chris Jackson
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Skin Conditions)
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Inflammatory skin diseases are the most common problem in dermatology. The induction of skin inflammation by environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and TiO2/ZnO/Ag nanoparticles (NPs) has been demonstrated previously. Recent studies have indicated that the inflammasome is often wrongly activated by these environmental irritants, thus inducing massive inflammation and resulting in the development of inflammatory diseases. The regulation of the inflammasome with respect to skin inflammation is complex and is still not completely understood. Autophagy, an intracellular degradation system that is associated with the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, plays a key role in inflammasome inactivation. As a housekeeping pathway, cells utilize autophagy to maintain the homeostasis of the organ structure and function when exposed to environmental stressors. However, only a few studies have examined the effect of autophagy and/or the inflammasome on skin pathogenesis. Here we review recent findings regarding the involvement of autophagy and inflammasome activation during skin inflammation. We posit that autophagy induction is a novel mechanism inter-modulating environmental stressor-induced skin inflammation. We also attempt to highlight the role of the inflammasome and the possible underlying mechanisms and pathways reflecting the pathogenesis of skin inflammation induced by UVR, Cr(VI) and TiO2/ZnO/Ag NPs. A more profound understanding about the crosstalk between autophagy and the inflammasome will contribute to the development of prevention and intervention strategies against human skin disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammasome; autophagy; UVR; hexavalent chromium; TiO2/ZnO/Ag nanoparticles inflammasome; autophagy; UVR; hexavalent chromium; TiO2/ZnO/Ag nanoparticles

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, R.-J.; Lee, Y.-H.; Yeh, Y.-L.; Wang, Y.-J.; Wang, B.-J. The Roles of Autophagy and the Inflammasome during Environmental Stress-Triggered Skin Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2063.

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