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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1795;

Function and Regulation of MicroRNAs and Their Potential as Biomarkers in Paediatric Liver Disease

Hepatic Fibrosis Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lady Cilento Children′s Hospital, 501 Stanley St, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Y-h. Taguchi
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs involved in biological and pathological processes of every cell type, including liver cells. Transcribed from specific genes, miRNA precursors are processed in the cytoplasm into mature miRNAs and as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) complex binds to messenger RNA (mRNA) by imperfect complementarity. This leads to the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. The function of a number of different miRNAs in fibrogenesis associated with the progression of chronic liver disease has recently been elucidated. Furthermore, miRNAs have been shown to be both disease-and tissue-specific and are stable in the circulation, which has led to increasing investigation on their utility as biomarkers for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases, including those in children. Here, we review the current knowledge on the biogenesis of microRNA, the mechanisms of translational repression and the use of miRNA as circulatory biomarkers in chronic paediatric liver diseases including cystic fibrosis associated liver disease, biliary atresia and viral hepatitis B. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; children; chronic liver disease; circulatory miRNA microRNA; children; chronic liver disease; circulatory miRNA

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Calvopina, D.A.; Coleman, M.A.; Lewindon, P.J.; Ramm, G.A. Function and Regulation of MicroRNAs and Their Potential as Biomarkers in Paediatric Liver Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1795.

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