Next Article in Journal
Stereoselective Blockage of Quinidine and Quinine in the hERG Channel and the Effect of Their Rescue Potency on Drug-Induced hERG Trafficking Defect
Next Article in Special Issue
Drought-Responsive Mechanisms in Plant Leaves Revealed by Proteomics
Previous Article in Journal
Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
Previous Article in Special Issue
Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis

Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025, China
College of Life Science and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Disease Control, Ministry of Education, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Sheehan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1644;
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 4 September 2016 / Accepted: 16 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
PDF [4024 KB, uploaded 28 September 2016]


Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF). By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA). The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; fluorosis; rats; sodium fluoride; iTRAQ; proteomics; serum biomarkers; fluorosis; rats; sodium fluoride; iTRAQ; proteomics; serum

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wei, Y.; Zeng, B.; Zhang, H.; Chen, C.; Wu, Y.; Wang, N.; Wu, Y.; Shen, L. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1644.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top