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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22081-22093;

Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats

EA 4489 Environnement Périnatal et Santé, Pôle Recherche Faculté de Médecine, Université Lille Nord de France, Lille 59045, France
Clinique de Chirurgie et Orthopédie de l'Enfant, Pôle Enfant, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU Lille, Lille 59037, France
Clinique de Néonatologie, Pôle Femme, Mère et Nouveau-Né, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU Lille, Lille 59037, France
Clinique de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Pôle Femme, Mère et Nouveau-Né, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU Lille, Lille 59037, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Charles Brennan and Cenk Suphioglu
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Diseases)
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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common complications of prematurity, occurring in 30% of very low birth weight infants. The benefits of dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) during pregnancy or the perinatal period have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation on lung injuries in newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Pregnant female Wistar rats (n = 14) were fed a control diet (n = 2), a PUFA ω-6 diet (n = 6), or a PUFA ω-3 diet (n = 6), starting with the 14th gestation day. At Day 1, female and newborn rats (10 per female) were exposed to hyperoxia (O2, n = 70) or to the ambient air (Air, n = 70). Six groups of newborns rats were obtained: PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30), PUFA ω-6/air (n = 30), PUFA ω-3/O2 (n = 30), PUFA ω-3/air (n = 30), control/O2 (n = 10), and control/air (n = 10). After 10 days, lungs were removed for analysis of alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development. Survival rate was 100%. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization and increased pulmonary vascular wall thickness in both control (n = 20) and PUFA ω-6 groups (n = 60). Maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation prevented the decrease in alveolarization caused by hyperoxia (n = 30) compared to PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30) or to the control/O2 (n = 10), but did not significantly increase the thickness of the lung vascular wall. Therefore, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation may protect newborn rats from lung injuries induced by hyperoxia. In clinical settings, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation during pregnancy and during lactation may prevent BPD development after premature birth. View Full-Text
Keywords: PUFA ω-3; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; prematurity; diet PUFA ω-3; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; prematurity; diet

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Sharma, D.; Nkembi, A.S.; Aubry, E.; Houeijeh, A.; Butruille, L.; Houfflin-Debarge, V.; Besson, R.; Deruelle, P.; Storme, L. Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 22081-22093.

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