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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17368-17393;

Direct Reprogramming—The Future of Cardiac Regeneration?

Division of Experimental Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Technische Universität München (TUM), Munich 80636, Germany
DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research)—Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich 80802, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aaron Tan
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1273 KB, uploaded 29 July 2015]   |  


Today, the only available curative therapy for end stage congestive heart failure (CHF) is heart transplantation. This therapeutic option is strongly limited by declining numbers of available donor hearts and by restricted long-term performance of the transplanted graft. The disastrous prognosis for CHF with its restricted therapeutic options has led scientists to develop different concepts of alternative regenerative treatment strategies including stem cell transplantation or stimulating cell proliferation of different cardiac cell types in situ. However, first clinical trials with overall inconsistent results were not encouraging, particularly in terms of functional outcome. Among other approaches, very promising ongoing pre-clinical research focuses on direct lineage conversion of scar fibroblasts into functional myocardium, termed “direct reprogramming” or “transdifferentiation.” This review seeks to summarize strategies for direct cardiac reprogramming including the application of different sets of transcription factors, microRNAs, and small molecules for an efficient generation of cardiomyogenic cells for regenerative purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct reprogramming; transdifferentiation; Gata4, Mef2c, Tbx5 (GMT); induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) direct reprogramming; transdifferentiation; Gata4, Mef2c, Tbx5 (GMT); induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs)

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Doppler, S.A.; Deutsch, M.-A.; Lange, R.; Krane, M. Direct Reprogramming—The Future of Cardiac Regeneration? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 17368-17393.

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