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Open AccessReview

Infections and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Binding or Sparring Partners?

1
Institute of Pediatrics, Università Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chak-Sing Lau
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17331-17343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160817331
Received: 25 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
Extensive work on experimental animal models clearly demonstrates that infectious agents can break immunological tolerance to self-antigens and induce autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The establishment of a causative link between infections and autoimmunity has been largely studied in a host of clinical studies, proving the role of infectious agents in the induction, as well as in the progression or exacerbation of SLE. However, we are far from a plain understanding of microbial-host interactions in the pathogenesis of SLE. Much serological, molecular and geoepidemiological evidence supports the relationship of different environmental infectious triggers in the inception of SLE-related autoimmune phenomena with adjuvant effects. The promotion of autoimmune responses through bystander activation or epitope spreading via multiple inflammatory pathways has been confirmed in animal models. Different viruses have been implicated in SLE pathogenesis, particularly Epstein-Barr virus, but also parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus and retroviruses. SLE patients usually have an impaired immune response towards Epstein-Barr virus and dysregulation of the viral latency period. Furthermore, the accumulation of endogenous retroviral products might trigger the production of interferon and anti-DNA antibodies. In addition, protozoan infections might even protect from autoimmune processes and rescind an ongoing B cell activation. Herein, we discuss which type of infections induce, exacerbate or inhibit autoimmune disorders and analyze the principal infection-induced immunological mechanisms influencing the development of SLE. View Full-Text
Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; Epstein-Barr virus; parvovirus B19; cytomegalovirus; retrovirus systemic lupus erythematosus; Epstein-Barr virus; parvovirus B19; cytomegalovirus; retrovirus
MDPI and ACS Style

Rigante, D.; Esposito, S. Infections and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Binding or Sparring Partners? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 17331-17343.

AMA Style

Rigante D, Esposito S. Infections and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Binding or Sparring Partners? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(8):17331-17343.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rigante, Donato; Esposito, Susanna. 2015. "Infections and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Binding or Sparring Partners?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 8: 17331-17343.

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