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Ultrasound Imaging for Risk Assessment in Atherosclerosis

Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, Hebelstrasse 20, Basel 4031, Switzerland
Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, Basel 4031, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Henein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9749-9769;
Received: 6 February 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atherosclerosis and Vascular Imaging)
PDF [3351 KB, uploaded 29 April 2015]


Atherosclerosis and its consequences like acute myocardial infarction or stroke are highly prevalent in western countries, and the incidence of atherosclerosis is rapidly rising in developing countries. Atherosclerosis is a disease that progresses silently over several decades before it results in the aforementioned clinical consequences. Therefore, there is a clinical need for imaging methods to detect the early stages of atherosclerosis and to better risk stratify patients. In this review, we will discuss how ultrasound imaging can contribute to the detection and risk stratification of atherosclerosis by (a) detecting advanced and early plaques; (b) evaluating the biomechanical consequences of atherosclerosis in the vessel wall; (c) assessing plaque neovascularization and (d) imaging the expression of disease-relevant molecules using molecular imaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound; contrast enhanced; molecular imaging; atherosclerosis; micro-bubbles ultrasound; contrast enhanced; molecular imaging; atherosclerosis; micro-bubbles

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Steinl, D.C.; Kaufmann, B.A. Ultrasound Imaging for Risk Assessment in Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9749-9769.

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