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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10526-10536;

Chitosan Oligosaccharides Inhibit/Disaggregate Fibrils and Attenuate Amyloid β-Mediated Neurotoxicity

Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functional Foods, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100191, China
College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100191, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vassilios Roussis
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 19 April 2015 / Accepted: 3 May 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity of Marine Natural Products)
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a large number of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in the brain. Therefore, inhibiting Aβ aggregation or destabilizing preformed aggregates could be a promising therapeutic target for halting/slowing the progression of AD. Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have previously been reported to exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Recent study shows that COS could markedly decrease oligomeric Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in rat hippocampal neurons. However, the potential mechanism that COS reduce Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity remains unclear. In the present study, our findings from circular dichroism spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and thioflavin T fluorescence assay suggested that COS act as an inhibitor of Aβ aggregation and this effect shows dose-dependency. Moreover, data from thioflavin T assay indicated that COS could significantly inhibit fibrils formation and disrupt preformed fibrils in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of COS attenuated Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time that COS could inhibit Aβ1-42 fibrils formation and disaggregate preformed fibrils, suggesting that COS may have anti-Aβ fibrillogenesis and fibril-destabilizing properties. These findings highlight the potential role of COS as novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β peptide; chitosan oligosaccharides; aggregation; neurotoxicity Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β peptide; chitosan oligosaccharides; aggregation; neurotoxicity

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Dai, X.; Hou, W.; Sun, Y.; Gao, Z.; Zhu, S.; Jiang, Z. Chitosan Oligosaccharides Inhibit/Disaggregate Fibrils and Attenuate Amyloid β-Mediated Neurotoxicity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 10526-10536.

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