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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4850-4864;

Expression of IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β in Tears as a Main Characteristic of the Immune Response in Human Microbial Keratitis

Cornea and Refractive Surgery Department, and Research Unit, Institute of Ophthalmology "Conde de Valenciana Foundation", Mexico 06800, DF, Mexico
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, P.O. Box 70159, Mexico 04510, DF, Mexico
Department of Psychoimmunology, National Institute of Psychiatry "Ramón de la Fuente", Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14370, DF, Mexico
Unit of R&D in Bioprocesses (UDIBI), Department of Immunology, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico 11340, DF, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kamal D. Moudgil
Received: 16 November 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2015 / Accepted: 24 February 2015 / Published: 3 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis (MK), it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients with MK. Characteristics of ocular lesions such as size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon were analyzed. Immunological evaluation included determination of interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in tear samples obtained from infected eyes of 28 patients with MK and compared with their contralateral non-infected eyes. Additionally, frequency of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD3CD56+ cells was also determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with MK, and compared with 48 healthy controls. Non-significant differences were observed in the size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon. Nevertheless, we found an immunological profile apparently related to MK etiology. IL-8 > IL-6 in patients with bacterial keratitis; IL-8 > IL-6 > IL-1β and increased frequency of circulating CD3CD56+ NK cells in patients with gram-negative keratitis; and IL-8 = IL-6 > IL-1β in patients with fungal keratitis. Characterization of tear cytokines from patients with MK could aid our understanding of the immune pathophysiological mechanisms underlying corneal damage in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial keratitis; cytokines; IL-1β; IL-6; IL-8; NK cells; human microbial keratitis; cytokines; IL-1β; IL-6; IL-8; NK cells; human

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Santacruz, C.; Linares, M.; Garfias, Y.; Loustaunau, L.M.; Pavon, L.; Perez-Tapia, S.M.; Jimenez-Martinez, M.C. Expression of IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β in Tears as a Main Characteristic of the Immune Response in Human Microbial Keratitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 4850-4864.

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