Next Article in Journal
Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress
Next Article in Special Issue
Oncogenic MicroRNAs Characterization in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Previous Article in Journal
Carbon Ion Irradiated Neural Injury Induced the Peripheral Immune Effects in Vitro or in Vivo
Previous Article in Special Issue
MicroRNA-214 and MicroRNA-126 Are Potential Biomarkers for Malignant Endothelial Proliferative Diseases
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28347-28376;

miRNAs and Other Epigenetic Changes as Biomarkers in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Centre for Information Based Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW 2305, Australia
Priority Research Centre for Cancer, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
Hunter Area Pathology Service, Pathology North, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2305, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: William Chi-shing Cho and Nalini Santanam
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
Full-Text   |   PDF [652 KB, uploaded 30 November 2015]   |  


Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterised by the lack of receptors for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). Since it cannot be treated by current endocrine therapies which target these receptors and due to its aggressive nature, it has one of the worst prognoses of all breast cancer subtypes. The only treatments remain chemo- and/or radio-therapy and surgery and because of this, novel biomarkers or treatment targets are urgently required to improve disease outcomes. MicroRNAs represent an attractive candidate for targeted therapies against TNBC, due to their natural ability to act as antisense interactors and regulators of entire gene sets involved in malignancy and their superiority over mRNA profiling to accurately classify disease. Here we review the current knowledge regarding miRNAs as biomarkers in TNBC and their potential use as therapeutic targets in this disease. Further, we review other epigenetic changes and interactions of these changes with microRNAs in this breast cancer subtype, which may lead to the discovery of new treatment targets for TNBC. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; triple negative breast cancer; DNA methylation microRNA; triple negative breast cancer; DNA methylation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mathe, A.; Scott, R.J.; Avery-Kiejda, K.A. miRNAs and Other Epigenetic Changes as Biomarkers in Triple Negative Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 28347-28376.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top