Next Article in Journal
A Mechanism of O-Demethylation of Aristolochic Acid I by Cytochromes P450 and Their Contributions to This Reaction in Human and Rat Livers: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches
Next Article in Special Issue
Neuropeptide Trefoil Factor 3 Reverses Depressive-Like Behaviors by Activation of BDNF-ERK-CREB Signaling in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats
Previous Article in Journal
DNA Repair—A Double-Edged Sword in the Genomic Stability of Cancer Cells—The Case of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Metabolite Concentrations in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Left Frontal White Matter, and the Left Hippocampus in Patients in Stable Schizophrenia Treated with Antipsychotics with or without Antidepressants. 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Study
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27550-27560;

Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator

Department of Hematology, Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado, Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro CEP 20221-903, Brazil
Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and National Institute for Translational Medicine, INCT-TM CEP 22290-140, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Domenico de Berardis
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antipsychotics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [200 KB, uploaded 18 November 2015]


Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mediates a number of processes that are pivotal for synaptogenesis and remodeling of synapses, including proteolysis of the brain extracellular matrix, degradation of adhesion molecules, activation of neurotrophins, and activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Abnormalities in these processes have been consistently described in psychotic disorders. In this paper, we review the physiological roles of tPA, focusing on conditions characterized by low tPA activity, which are prevalent in schizophrenia. We then describe how tPA activity is influenced by lifestyle interventions and nutritional supplements that may ameliorate psychotic symptoms. Next, we analyze the role of tPA in the mechanism of action of hormones and medications effective in mitigating psychotic symptoms, such as pregnenolone, estrogen, oxytocin, dopamine D3 receptor antagonists, retinoic acid, valproic acid, cannabidiol, sodium nitroprusside, N-acetyl cysteine, and warfarin. We also review evidence that tPA participates in the mechanism by which electroconvulsive therapy and cigarette smoking may reduce psychotic symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognition; refractory; resistant; schizophrenia; tissue plasminogen activator cognition; refractory; resistant; schizophrenia; tissue plasminogen activator
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hoirisch-Clapauch, S.; Nardi, A.E. Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27550-27560.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top