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Open AccessArticle

Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

1
Department of Human Epigenetics, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Pawinskiego Street, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of General and Transplantation Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, 59 Nowogrodzka Street, 02-005 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Lindleya 4, 02-005 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, 99 Marymoncka Street, 01-813 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Toshiro Arai
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 25817-25830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161025817
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Obesity and Diabetes)
Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT) or visceral (VAT) adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL): 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2) controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively), while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047). What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively). Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003). In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; inflammation; interleukins; subcutaneous adipose tissue; visceral adipose tissue obesity; inflammation; interleukins; subcutaneous adipose tissue; visceral adipose tissue
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Jonas, M.I.; Kurylowicz, A.; Bartoszewicz, Z.; Lisik, W.; Jonas, M.; Wierzbicki, Z.; Chmura, A.; Pruszczyk, P.; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, M. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 25817-25830.

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