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Adjunctive Application of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment: A Review of Literature

1
Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651, Japan
2
Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8650, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ying-ying Huang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24111-24126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161024111
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 26 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque biofilms, and the removal of these biofilms from the root surface of teeth plays a central part in its treatment. The conventional treatment for periodontal disease fails to remove periodontal infection in a subset of cases, such as those with complicated root morphology. Adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an additional treatment for this infectious disease. Many periodontal pathogenic bacteria are susceptible to low-power lasers in the presence of dyes, such as methylene blue, toluidine blue O, malachite green, and indocyanine green. aPDT uses these light-activated photosensitizer that is incorporated selectively by bacteria and absorbs a low-power laser/light with an appropriate wavelength to induce singlet oxygen and free radicals, which are toxic to bacteria. While this technique has been evaluated by many clinical studies, some systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported controversial results about the benefits of aPDT for periodontal treatment. In the light of these previous reports, the aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information about aPDT and help extend knowledge of advanced laser therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; antimicrobial photodynamic therapy; periodontal treatment; periodontal disease; periodontal pathogenic bacteria; low-power laser; photosensitizer photodynamic therapy; antimicrobial photodynamic therapy; periodontal treatment; periodontal disease; periodontal pathogenic bacteria; low-power laser; photosensitizer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kikuchi, T.; Mogi, M.; Okabe, I.; Okada, K.; Goto, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Fujimura, T.; Fukuda, M.; Mitani, A. Adjunctive Application of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment: A Review of Literature. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24111-24126.

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