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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18267-18280;

tRNA Modification Enzymes GidA and MnmE: Potential Role in Virulence of Bacterial Pathogens

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 10 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functions of Transfer RNAs)
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Transfer RNA (tRNA) is an RNA molecule that carries amino acids to the ribosomes for protein synthesis. These tRNAs function at the peptidyl (P) and aminoacyl (A) binding sites of the ribosome during translation, with each codon being recognized by a specific tRNA. Due to this specificity, tRNA modification is essential for translational efficiency. Many enzymes have been implicated in the modification of bacterial tRNAs, and these enzymes may complex with one another or interact individually with the tRNA. Approximately, 100 tRNA modification enzymes have been identified with glucose-inhibited division (GidA) protein and MnmE being two of the enzymes studied. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella, GidA and MnmE bind together to form a functional complex responsible for the proper biosynthesis of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U34) of tRNAs. Studies have implicated this pathway in a major pathogenic regulatory mechanism as deletion of gidA and/or mnmE has attenuated several bacterial pathogens like Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Pseudomonas syringae, Aeromonas hydrophila, and many others. In this review, we summarize the potential role of the GidA/MnmE tRNA modification pathway in bacterial virulence, interactions with the host, and potential therapeutic strategies resulting from a greater understanding of this regulatory mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: tRNA modification; GidA; MnmE; bacterial pathogenesis tRNA modification; GidA; MnmE; bacterial pathogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shippy, D.C.; Fadl, A.A. tRNA Modification Enzymes GidA and MnmE: Potential Role in Virulence of Bacterial Pathogens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 18267-18280.

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