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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 17644-17666;

Circulating RNA Molecules as Biomarkers in Liver Disease

1,2,3,* , 2
Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon F-69008, France
University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tirgu Mures, 38 Gh. Marinescu st., Tirgu Mures 540142, Romania
Emergency County Clinical Hospital, 50 Gh. Marinescu st., Tirgu Mures 540136, Romania
Inserm U1111, 21 Avenue Tony Garnier, Lyon F-69007, France
CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université de Lyon, 21 Avenue Tony Garnier, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07, France
Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 15 parvis René Descartes, BP 7000 69342 Lyon Cedex 07, France
CNRS, UMR5308, 21 avenue Tony Garnier, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital de la Croix Rousse, Laboratoire de Virologie, Lyon F-69004, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Classes of Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics)
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Liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As in other fields of medicine, there is a stringent need for non-invasive markers to improve patient diagnostics, monitoring and prognostic ability in liver pathology. Cell-free circulating RNA molecules have been recently acknowledged as an important source of potential medical biomarkers. However, many aspects related to the biology of these molecules remain to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize current concepts related to the origin, transportation and possible functions of cell-free RNA. We outline current development of extracellular RNA-based biomarkers in the main forms of non-inherited liver disease: chronic viral hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, non-alcoholic fatty liver, hepato-toxicity, and liver transplantation. Despite recent technological advances, the lack of standardization in the assessment of these markers makes their adoption into clinical practice difficult. We thus finally review the main factors influencing quantification of circulating RNA. These factors should be considered in the reporting and interpretation of current findings, as well as in the proper planning of future studies, to improve reliability and reproducibility of results. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver disease; biomarker; cell-free RNA; miRNA; diagnostic; preanalytical variable liver disease; biomarker; cell-free RNA; miRNA; diagnostic; preanalytical variable
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Enache, L.S.; Enache, E.L.; Ramière, C.; Diaz, O.; Bancu, L.; Sin, A.; André, P. Circulating RNA Molecules as Biomarkers in Liver Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 17644-17666.

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