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Noncoding RNA in Oncogenesis: A New Era of Identifying Key Players

by Guorui Deng 1,2 and Guangchao Sui 1,*
1
Department of Cancer Biology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
2
Hypertension and Vascular Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18319-18349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140918319
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 23 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 5 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
New discoveries and accelerating progresses in the field of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) continuously challenges our deep-rooted doctrines in biology and sometimes our imagination. A growing body of evidence indicates that ncRNAs are important players in oncogenesis. While a stunning list of ncRNAs has been discovered, only a small portion of them has been examined for their biological activities and very few have been characterized for the molecular mechanisms of their action. To date, ncRNAs have been shown to regulate a wide range of biological processes, including chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, mRNA translation and protein function. Dysregulation of ncRNAs contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers and aberrant ncRNA expression has a high potential to be prognostic in some cancers. Thus, a new cancer research era has begun to identify novel key players of ncRNAs in oncogenesis. In this review, we will first discuss the function and regulation of miRNAs, especially focusing on the interplay between miRNAs and several key cancer genes, including p53, PTEN and c-Myc. We will then summarize the research of long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) in cancers. In this part, we will discuss the lncRNAs in four categories based on their activities, including regulating gene expression, acting as miRNA decoys, mediating mRNA translation, and modulating protein activities. At the end, we will also discuss recently unraveled activities of circular RNAs (circRNAs). View Full-Text
Keywords: noncoding RNA; microRNA; gene expression; cancer; tumor suppressor; oncogene noncoding RNA; microRNA; gene expression; cancer; tumor suppressor; oncogene
MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, G.; Sui, G. Noncoding RNA in Oncogenesis: A New Era of Identifying Key Players. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18319-18349.

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