Next Article in Journal
Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Human Colorectal Cancer by Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence with Spectral Unmixing
Previous Article in Journal
Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Underlying Parkinson’s Disease-Associated Neurodegeneration in C. elegans
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23129-23139;

GC and GC/MS Analysis of Essential Oil Composition of the Endemic Soqotraen Leucas virgata Balf.f. and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sana'a-University, P.O. Box 33039, Sana'a, Yemen
Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [246 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Leucas virgata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae) was collected from the Island Soqotra (Yemen) and its essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast species by using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and antioxidant activity by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. The investigation led to the identification of 43 constituents, representing 93.9% of the total oil. The essential oil of L. virgata was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (50.8%). Camphor (20.5%) exo-fenchol (3.4%), fenchon (5.4%), and borneol (3.1%) were identified as the main components. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were found as the second major group of compounds (21.0%). β-Eudesmol (6.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.1%) were the major compounds among oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that the oil exhibited a great antibacterial activity against the tested S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli. No activity was found against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Moreover, the DPPH-radical scavenging assay exhibited only a moderate antioxidant activity (31%) for the oil at the highest concentration tested (1 mg/mL). View Full-Text
Keywords: Leucas virgata; Soqotra; essential oil; antimicrobial; antioxidant Leucas virgata; Soqotra; essential oil; antimicrobial; antioxidant
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mothana, R.A.; Al-Said, M.S.; Al-Yahya, M.A.; Al-Rehaily, A.J.; Khaled, J.M. GC and GC/MS Analysis of Essential Oil Composition of the Endemic Soqotraen Leucas virgata Balf.f. and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23129-23139.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top