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Review

MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis of Non-Invasive Human Urine and Saliva Samples for the Identification of New Cancer Biomarkers

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via E. Orabona 4, 70124 Bari, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anren Hu
Molecules 2022, 27(6), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061925
Received: 14 February 2022 / Revised: 6 March 2022 / Accepted: 14 March 2022 / Published: 16 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Applications of Biochemical Mass Spectrometry)
Cancer represents a group of heterogeneous diseases that are a leading global cause of death. Even though mortality has decreased in the past thirty years for different reasons, most patients are still diagnosed at the advanced stage, with limited therapeutic choices and poor outcomes. Moreover, the majority of cancers are detected using invasive painful methods, such as endoscopic biopsy, making the development of non-invasive or minimally invasive methods for the discovery and fast detection of specific biomarkers a crucial need. Among body fluids, a valuable non-invasive alternative to tissue biopsy, the most accessible and least invasive are undoubtedly urine and saliva. They are easily retrievable complex fluids containing a large variety of endogenous compounds that may provide information on the physiological condition of the body. The combined analysis of these fluids with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS), a reliable and easy-to-use instrumentation that provides information with relatively simple sample pretreatments, could represent the ideal option to rapidly achieve fast early stage diagnosis of tumors and their real-time monitoring. On this basis, the present review summarizes the recently reported applications relevant to the MALDI analysis of human urine and saliva samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: MALDI-TOF/MS; cancer; biomarkers; early stage diagnosis; urine; saliva MALDI-TOF/MS; cancer; biomarkers; early stage diagnosis; urine; saliva
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zambonin, C.; Aresta, A. MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis of Non-Invasive Human Urine and Saliva Samples for the Identification of New Cancer Biomarkers. Molecules 2022, 27, 1925. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061925

AMA Style

Zambonin C, Aresta A. MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis of Non-Invasive Human Urine and Saliva Samples for the Identification of New Cancer Biomarkers. Molecules. 2022; 27(6):1925. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061925

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zambonin, Carlo, and Antonella Aresta. 2022. "MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis of Non-Invasive Human Urine and Saliva Samples for the Identification of New Cancer Biomarkers" Molecules 27, no. 6: 1925. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061925

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