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Article

Identification of Non-Volatile Compounds That Impact Flavor Disliking of Whole Wheat Bread Made with Aged Flours

Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, 2015 Fyffe Rd., Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elisabeth Guichard and Jean-Luc Le Quéré
Molecules 2022, 27(4), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041331
Received: 18 January 2022 / Revised: 10 February 2022 / Accepted: 12 February 2022 / Published: 16 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 16th Weurman Flavour Research Symposium)
Whole wheat flour has a shorter shelf life than refined wheat flour due to off-flavor development. An untargeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) flavoromics approach was applied to identify compounds that negatively impact the flavor liking in whole wheat bread made from aged flours. The chemical profiles of thirteen breads made from aged flours were obtained using LC/MS and modeled by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) to predict flavor liking. Top predictive chemical features (negatively correlated) were identified as pinellic acid (9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid), 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid, and 1-(9Z,12Z-octadecadienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The sensory analysis confirmed the three compounds increased the bitterness intensity of the bread samples. The formation of the trihydroxy fatty acid bitter compound, pinellic acid (9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid), was impacted by the lipoxygenase activity of the flour; however, there was no influence on the formation of 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid or 1-(9Z,12Z-octadecadienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Additionally, the concentrations of all bitter compounds were significantly higher in bread made from aged flour versus non-aged flour. View Full-Text
Keywords: consumer liking; whole wheat flour; untargeted LC/MS profiling; flour storage; phosphocholine consumer liking; whole wheat flour; untargeted LC/MS profiling; flour storage; phosphocholine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cong, W.; Tello, E.; Simons, C.T.; Peterson, D.G. Identification of Non-Volatile Compounds That Impact Flavor Disliking of Whole Wheat Bread Made with Aged Flours. Molecules 2022, 27, 1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041331

AMA Style

Cong W, Tello E, Simons CT, Peterson DG. Identification of Non-Volatile Compounds That Impact Flavor Disliking of Whole Wheat Bread Made with Aged Flours. Molecules. 2022; 27(4):1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041331

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cong, Wen, Edisson Tello, Christopher T. Simons, and Devin G. Peterson. 2022. "Identification of Non-Volatile Compounds That Impact Flavor Disliking of Whole Wheat Bread Made with Aged Flours" Molecules 27, no. 4: 1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041331

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