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Review

Methanol Mitigation during Manufacturing of Fruit Spirits with Special Consideration of Novel Coffee Cherry Spirits

1
Coffee Consulate, Hans-Thoma-Strasse 20, 68163 Mannheim, Germany
2
Yeast Genetics and Fermentation Technology, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 23, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
3
Finca La Buena Esperanza, Pasaje Senda Florida Norte 124, San Salvador, El Salvador
4
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Claudio Ferrante
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092585
Received: 29 March 2021 / Revised: 20 April 2021 / Accepted: 23 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal limits have been set in most jurisdictions. Therefore, the methanol content needs to be mitigated and its level must be controlled. This article will review the several factors that influence the methanol content including the pH value of the mash, the addition of various yeast and enzyme preparations, fermentation temperature, mash storage, and most importantly the raw material quality and hygiene. From all these mitigation possibilities, lowering the pH value and the use of cultured yeasts when mashing fruit substances is already common as best practice today. Also a controlled yeast fermentation at acidic pH facilitates not only reduced methanol formation, but ultimately also leads to quality benefits of the distillate. Special care has to be observed in the case of spirits made from coffee by-products which are prone to spoilage with very high methanol contents reported in past studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcoholic beverages; spirits; methanol; risk mitigation; legal limits; quality control alcoholic beverages; spirits; methanol; risk mitigation; legal limits; quality control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blumenthal, P.; Steger, M.C.; Einfalt, D.; Rieke-Zapp, J.; Quintanilla Bellucci, A.; Sommerfeld, K.; Schwarz, S.; Lachenmeier, D.W. Methanol Mitigation during Manufacturing of Fruit Spirits with Special Consideration of Novel Coffee Cherry Spirits. Molecules 2021, 26, 2585. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092585

AMA Style

Blumenthal P, Steger MC, Einfalt D, Rieke-Zapp J, Quintanilla Bellucci A, Sommerfeld K, Schwarz S, Lachenmeier DW. Methanol Mitigation during Manufacturing of Fruit Spirits with Special Consideration of Novel Coffee Cherry Spirits. Molecules. 2021; 26(9):2585. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092585

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blumenthal, Patrik, Marc C. Steger, Daniel Einfalt, Jörg Rieke-Zapp, Andrès Quintanilla Bellucci, Katharina Sommerfeld, Steffen Schwarz, and Dirk W. Lachenmeier 2021. "Methanol Mitigation during Manufacturing of Fruit Spirits with Special Consideration of Novel Coffee Cherry Spirits" Molecules 26, no. 9: 2585. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092585

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