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Article

Redox Speciation of Vanadium in Estuarine Waters Using Improved Methodology Based on Anion Exchange Chromatography Coupled to HR ICP-MS System

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Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Laboratory for Chemical Oceanography and Sedimentology of the Sea, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Šetalište Ivana Meštrovića 63, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Željka Fiket, Martina Furdek Turk and Giorgio Vilardi
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092436
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Analysis of Inorganic Pollutants)
An improved methodology was developed for V redox speciation in estuarine waters using a hyphenated technique consisting of ion chromatograph (IC) with an anion exchange column and a high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS). This approach enables the direct determination of V(V), whereas reduced species (mainly V(IV)) are calculated by subtracting V(V) concentrations from the measured total V concentration. Based on the “on-column” V(V) chelation mechanism by EDTA, with the eluent composed of 40 mmol L−1 ammonium bicarbonate, 40 mmol L−1 ammonium sulphate, 8 mmol L−1 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 3% acetonitrile, the method was successfully used for analyses of V redox speciation in samples taken in the vertical salinity gradient of the highly stratified Krka River estuary. Due to the matrix effects causing different sensitivities, a standard addition method was used for V(V) quantification purposes. The limit of detection (LOD) was also found to be matrix related: 101.68 ng L−1 in the seawater and 30.56 µg L−1 in the freshwater. Performed stability tests showed that V redox speciation is preserved at least 7 days in un-treated samples, possibly due to the stabilization of V-reduced species with natural organic matter (NOM). The dominant V form in the analysed samples was V(V) with the reduced V(IV) accounting for up to 26% of the total dissolved pool. The concentration of V(IV) was found to correlate negatively with the oxygen concentration. Significant removal of dissolved V was detected in oxygen depleted zones possibly related to the particle scavenging. View Full-Text
Keywords: vanadium(V) redox speciation; ion chromatography; on-column complexation; Krka River estuary; high-salinity matrix vanadium(V) redox speciation; ion chromatography; on-column complexation; Krka River estuary; high-salinity matrix
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MDPI and ACS Style

Knežević, L.; Omanović, D.; Bačić, N.; Mandić, J.; Bura-Nakić, E. Redox Speciation of Vanadium in Estuarine Waters Using Improved Methodology Based on Anion Exchange Chromatography Coupled to HR ICP-MS System. Molecules 2021, 26, 2436. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092436

AMA Style

Knežević L, Omanović D, Bačić N, Mandić J, Bura-Nakić E. Redox Speciation of Vanadium in Estuarine Waters Using Improved Methodology Based on Anion Exchange Chromatography Coupled to HR ICP-MS System. Molecules. 2021; 26(9):2436. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092436

Chicago/Turabian Style

Knežević, Lucija, Dario Omanović, Niko Bačić, Jelena Mandić, and Elvira Bura-Nakić. 2021. "Redox Speciation of Vanadium in Estuarine Waters Using Improved Methodology Based on Anion Exchange Chromatography Coupled to HR ICP-MS System" Molecules 26, no. 9: 2436. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092436

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