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Review

The Compositional Aspects of Edible Flowers as an Emerging Horticultural Product

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Department of Plant Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
3
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici, Italy
4
Department of Agriculture Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytokou Street, N. Ionia, 38446 Volos, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Enrique Barrajon, Vicente Micol and María Herranz-López
Molecules 2021, 26(22), 6940; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226940
Received: 27 October 2021 / Revised: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 15 November 2021 / Published: 17 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Reviews in Natural Products Chemistry)
Edible flowers are becoming very popular, as consumers are seeking healthier and more attractive food products that can improve their diet aesthetics and diversify their dietary sources of micronutrients. The great variety of flowers that can be eaten is also associated with high variability in chemical composition, especially in bioactive compounds content that may significantly contribute to human health. The advanced analytical techniques allowed us to reveal the chemical composition of edible flowers and identify new compounds and effects that were not known until recently. Considering the numerous species of edible flowers, the present review aims to categorize the various species depending on their chemical composition and also to present the main groups of compounds that are usually present in the species that are most commonly used for culinary purposes. Moreover, special attention is given to those species that contain potentially toxic or poisonous compounds as their integration in human diets should be carefully considered. In conclusion, the present review provides useful information regarding the chemical composition and the main groups of chemical compounds that are present in the flowers of the most common species. View Full-Text
Keywords: edible flowers; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; anthocyanins; alkaloids; betacyanins; pigments edible flowers; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; anthocyanins; alkaloids; betacyanins; pigments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pires, E.d.O., Jr.; Di Gioia, F.; Rouphael, Y.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Caleja, C.; Barros, L.; Petropoulos, S.A. The Compositional Aspects of Edible Flowers as an Emerging Horticultural Product. Molecules 2021, 26, 6940. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226940

AMA Style

Pires EdO Jr., Di Gioia F, Rouphael Y, Ferreira ICFR, Caleja C, Barros L, Petropoulos SA. The Compositional Aspects of Edible Flowers as an Emerging Horticultural Product. Molecules. 2021; 26(22):6940. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pires, Eleomar de O., Jr., Francesco Di Gioia, Youssef Rouphael, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Cristina Caleja, Lillian Barros, and Spyridon A. Petropoulos. 2021. "The Compositional Aspects of Edible Flowers as an Emerging Horticultural Product" Molecules 26, no. 22: 6940. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226940

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