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Review

Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Carbon Dots as Electrochemical Biosensing Composites

Department of Chemistry, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bryan M. Wong
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6674; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216674
Received: 2 October 2021 / Revised: 27 October 2021 / Accepted: 28 October 2021 / Published: 4 November 2021
Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have been extensively used as electrochemical sensing composites due to their interesting chemical, electronic, and mechanical properties giving rise to increased performance. Due to these materials’ unknown long-term ecological fate, care must be given to make their use tractable. In this review, the design and use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and carbon dots (CDs) as electrochemical sensing electrocatalysts applied to the working electrode surface are surveyed for various biosensing applications. Graphene and CDs are readily biodegradable as compared to CNTs. Design elements for CNTs that carry over to graphene and CDs include Coulombic attraction of components and using O or N atoms that serve as tethering points for attaching electrocatalytically active nanoparticles (NPs) and/or other additives. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotubes; graphene; carbon dots; metal oxide; nanoparticles; noble metal; surface functionalization carbon nanotubes; graphene; carbon dots; metal oxide; nanoparticles; noble metal; surface functionalization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pandey, R.R.; Chusuei, C.C. Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Carbon Dots as Electrochemical Biosensing Composites. Molecules 2021, 26, 6674. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216674

AMA Style

Pandey RR, Chusuei CC. Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Carbon Dots as Electrochemical Biosensing Composites. Molecules. 2021; 26(21):6674. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216674

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pandey, Raja R., and Charles C. Chusuei. 2021. "Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Carbon Dots as Electrochemical Biosensing Composites" Molecules 26, no. 21: 6674. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216674

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