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Article

Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Thymoquinone against Different Dental Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

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Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Giza 12311, Egypt
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Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad Sohail Zafar, Farshid Sefat, Jithendra Ratnayake and Tan Sui
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6451; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216451
Received: 4 October 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 21 October 2021 / Published: 26 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials)
This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Thymoquinone (TQ) on four different oral microorganisms. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Broth microdilution, and Well diffusion tests were used to determine the optimum antimicrobial concentrations of TQ against Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus over 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. Chlorhexidine 0.12% was selected as a positive control. The inhibitory effect of TQ on bacterial growth was most noticeable with S. salivarius, while the least affected was S. aureus. TQ’s MBC and MIC for S. oralis and S. aureus were comparable 2 mg/mL and 3 mg/mL, respectively. S. salivarius was most resistant to TQ and displayed a value of 5 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. The viable count of different strains after exposure to TQ’s MBC values was most noticeable with S. aureus followed by S. oralis and S. mutans, while S. salivarius was least affected. This study emphasized the promising antimicrobial effect of TQ against the four main oral microorganisms. It has a potential preventive effect against dental caries as well as other oral diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: black seeds; thymoquinone; dental caries; antibacterial agents; herbs black seeds; thymoquinone; dental caries; antibacterial agents; herbs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Khalifa, K.S.; AlSheikh, R.; Al-Hariri, M.T.; El-Sayyad, H.; Alqurashi, M.S.; Ali, S.; Bugshan, A.S. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Thymoquinone against Different Dental Pathogens: An In Vitro Study. Molecules 2021, 26, 6451. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216451

AMA Style

Al-Khalifa KS, AlSheikh R, Al-Hariri MT, El-Sayyad H, Alqurashi MS, Ali S, Bugshan AS. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Thymoquinone against Different Dental Pathogens: An In Vitro Study. Molecules. 2021; 26(21):6451. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216451

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Khalifa, Khalifa S., Rasha AlSheikh, Moahmmed T. Al-Hariri, Hosam El-Sayyad, Maher S. Alqurashi, Saqib Ali, and Amr S. Bugshan. 2021. "Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Thymoquinone against Different Dental Pathogens: An In Vitro Study" Molecules 26, no. 21: 6451. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216451

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