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Article

Application of Three Ecological Assessment Tools in Examining Chromatographic Methods for the Green Analysis of a Mixture of Dopamine, Serotonin, Glutamate and GABA: A Comparative Study

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Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Addiction and Neuroscience Research Unit, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
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Neuroscience Unit, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22252, Saudi Arabia
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Pre-Clinical Research Unit, King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22252, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514, Egypt
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mário Barroso, Eugenia Gallardo and Luís Passarinha
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5436; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185436
Received: 6 June 2021 / Revised: 13 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 7 September 2021
The assessment of greenness of analytical protocols is of great importance now to preserve the environment. Some studies have analyzed either only the neurotransmitters, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together or with other neurotransmitters and biomarkers. However, these methods have not been investigated for their greenness and were not compared with each other to find the optimum one. Therefore, this study aims to compare seven published chromatographic methods that analyzed the four neurotransmitters and their mixtures using the National Environmental Method Index, Analytical Eco-Scale Assessment (ESA), and Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI). As these methods cover both qualitative and quantitative aspects, they offer better transparency. Overall, GAPI showed maximum greenness throughout the analysis. Method 6 was proven to be the method of choice for analyzing the mixture, owing to its greenness, according to NEMI, ESA, and GAPI. Additionally, method 6 has a wide scope of application (13 components can be analyzed), high sensitivity (low LOQ values), and fast analysis (low retention times, especially for glutamate and GABA). View Full-Text
Keywords: dopamine; serotonin; glutamate; GABA; NEMI; GAPI; ESA; green chemistry dopamine; serotonin; glutamate; GABA; NEMI; GAPI; ESA; green chemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Almalki, A.H.; Naguib, I.A.; Alshehri, F.S.; Alghamdi, B.S.; Alsaab, H.O.; Althobaiti, Y.S.; Alshehri, S.; Abdallah, F.F. Application of Three Ecological Assessment Tools in Examining Chromatographic Methods for the Green Analysis of a Mixture of Dopamine, Serotonin, Glutamate and GABA: A Comparative Study. Molecules 2021, 26, 5436. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185436

AMA Style

Almalki AH, Naguib IA, Alshehri FS, Alghamdi BS, Alsaab HO, Althobaiti YS, Alshehri S, Abdallah FF. Application of Three Ecological Assessment Tools in Examining Chromatographic Methods for the Green Analysis of a Mixture of Dopamine, Serotonin, Glutamate and GABA: A Comparative Study. Molecules. 2021; 26(18):5436. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185436

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almalki, Atiah H., Ibrahim A. Naguib, Fahad S. Alshehri, Badrah S. Alghamdi, Hashem O. Alsaab, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Sameer Alshehri, and Fatma F. Abdallah. 2021. "Application of Three Ecological Assessment Tools in Examining Chromatographic Methods for the Green Analysis of a Mixture of Dopamine, Serotonin, Glutamate and GABA: A Comparative Study" Molecules 26, no. 18: 5436. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185436

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