Next Article in Journal
N-Terminomics Strategies for Protease Substrates Profiling
Next Article in Special Issue
Cinnamomum cassia and Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oils Reduce the Colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium in an In Vivo Infection Model Using Caenorhabditis elegans
Previous Article in Journal
Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles from Iris tuberosa as Potential Preservative in Cosmetic Products
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil from Ecuadorian Endemic Species Croton ferrugineus and Its Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
 
 
Article

Essential Oils Extracted from Organic Propolis Residues: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties and Volatile Profile

1
Department of Agri-Food Industry, Food and Nutrition, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13418-900, SP, Brazil
2
Dirección de Investigación y Desarrollo, Universidad Privada del Norte (UPN), Trujillo 13011, Peru
3
Biological Sciences Graduate Program, Federal University of Alfenas—UNIFAL-MG, Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, Alfenas 37130-001, MG, Brazil
4
Department of Biosciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Av. Limeira, 901, Piracicaba 13414-903, SP, Brazil
5
Department of Biological Science, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13418-900, SP, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to the study.
Academic Editors: Asta Judžentienė and Kristina Ložienė
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4694; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154694
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 27 July 2021 / Published: 3 August 2021
The industrial processing of crude propolis generates residues. Essential oils (EOs) from propolis residues could be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds to replace antibiotics and synthetic antioxidants in pig production. In this study, we determined the antibacterial/antioxidant activity of EOs from crude organic propolis (EOP) and from propolis residues, moist residue (EOMR), and dried residue (EODR), and further elucidated their chemical composition. The EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their volatile profile was tentatively identified by GC-MS. All EOs had an antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum as they caused disturbances on the growth kinetics of both bacteria. However, EODR had more selective antibacterial activity, as it caused a higher reduction in the maximal culture density (D) of E. coli (86.7%) than L. plantarum (46.9%). EODR exhibited mild antioxidant activity, whereas EOMR showed the highest antioxidant activity (ABTS = 0.90 μmol TE/mg, FRAP = 463.97 μmol Fe2+/mg) and phenolic content (58.41 mg GAE/g). Each EO had a different chemical composition, but α-pinene and β-pinene were the major compounds detected in the samples. Interestingly, specific minor compounds were detected in a higher relative amount in EOMR and EODR as compared to EOP. Therefore, these minor compounds are most likely responsible for the biological properties of EODR and EOMR. Collectively, our findings suggest that the EOs from propolis residues could be resourcefully used as natural antibacterial/antioxidant additives in pig production. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; HS-GC/MS; Lactobacillus; pig production; feedstuff; bee product Escherichia coli; HS-GC/MS; Lactobacillus; pig production; feedstuff; bee product
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ikeda, N.Y.; Ambrosio, C.M.S.; Miano, A.C.; Rosalen, P.L.; Gloria, E.M.; Alencar, S.M. Essential Oils Extracted from Organic Propolis Residues: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties and Volatile Profile. Molecules 2021, 26, 4694. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154694

AMA Style

Ikeda NY, Ambrosio CMS, Miano AC, Rosalen PL, Gloria EM, Alencar SM. Essential Oils Extracted from Organic Propolis Residues: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties and Volatile Profile. Molecules. 2021; 26(15):4694. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154694

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ikeda, Natália Y., Carmen M. S. Ambrosio, Alberto Claudio Miano, Pedro L. Rosalen, Eduardo M. Gloria, and Severino M. Alencar. 2021. "Essential Oils Extracted from Organic Propolis Residues: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties and Volatile Profile" Molecules 26, no. 15: 4694. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154694

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop