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Article

The Effects of Food on Cannabidiol Bioaccessibility

1
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
2
Trait Biosciences, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Tzakos
Molecules 2021, 26(12), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123573
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 3 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a hydrophobic non-psychoactive compound with therapeutic characteristics. Animal and human studies have shown its poor oral bioavailability in vivo, and the impact of consuming lipid-soluble CBD with and without food on gut bioaccessibility has not been explored. The purpose of this research was to study the bioaccessibility of CBD after a three-phase upper digestion experiment with and without food, and to test lipase activity with different substrate concentrations. Our results showed that lipase enzyme activity and fatty acid absorption increased in the presence of bile salts, which may also contribute to an increase in CBD bioaccessibility. The food matrix used was a mixture of olive oil and baby food. Overall, the fed-state digestion revealed significantly higher micellarization efficiency for CBD (14.15 ± 0.6% for 10 mg and 22.67 ± 2.1% for 100 mg CBD ingested) than the fasted state digestion of CBD (0.65 ± 0.7% for 10 mg and 0.14 ± 0.1% for 100 mg CBD ingested). The increase in bioaccessibility of CBD with food could be explained by the fact that micelle formation from hydrolyzed lipids aid in bioaccessibility of hydrophobic molecules. In conclusion, the bioaccessibility of CBD depends on the food matrix and the presence of lipase and bile salts. View Full-Text
Keywords: CBD; hemp; cannabis; in vitro digestion; fasted digestion; fed digestion; UPLC-MS; metabolites CBD; hemp; cannabis; in vitro digestion; fasted digestion; fed digestion; UPLC-MS; metabolites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mozaffari, K.; Willette, S.; Lucker, B.F.; Kovar, S.E.; Holguin, F.O.; Guzman, I. The Effects of Food on Cannabidiol Bioaccessibility. Molecules 2021, 26, 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123573

AMA Style

Mozaffari K, Willette S, Lucker BF, Kovar SE, Holguin FO, Guzman I. The Effects of Food on Cannabidiol Bioaccessibility. Molecules. 2021; 26(12):3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mozaffari, Khadijeh, Stephanie Willette, Ben F. Lucker, Sarah E. Kovar, Francisco Omar Holguin, and Ivette Guzman. 2021. "The Effects of Food on Cannabidiol Bioaccessibility" Molecules 26, no. 12: 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123573

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