Next Article in Journal
Comparison of Resveratrol Supplementation and Energy Restriction Effects on Sympathetic Nervous System Activity and Vascular Reactivity: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Next Article in Special Issue
Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Esterified Lignin in Various Polymer Blends
Previous Article in Journal
Thiazole Ring—A Biologically Active Scaffold
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Overview of the Antimicrobial Properties of Lignocellulosic Materials
Article

A Comparative Study of Pyrolysis Liquids by Slow Pyrolysis of Industrial Hemp Leaves, Hurds and Roots

1
Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
2
Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland
4
School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
5
SIB Labs, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rui L. Reis and Emanuel M. Fernandes
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3167; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113167
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 22 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Materials)
This study assessed the pyrolysis liquids obtained by slow pyrolysis of industrial hemp leaves, hurds, and roots. The liquids recovered between a pyrolysis temperature of 275–350 °C, at two condensation temperatures 130 °C and 70 °C, were analyzed. Aqueous and bio-oil pyrolysis liquids were produced and analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (APPI FT-ICR MS). NMR revealed quantitative concentrations of the most abundant compounds in the aqueous fractions and compound groups in the oily fractions. In the aqueous fractions, the concentration range of acetic acid was 50–241 gL−1, methanol 2–30 gL−1, propanoic acid 5–20 gL−1, and 1-hydroxybutan-2-one 2 gL−1. GC-MS was used to compare the compositions of the volatile compounds and APPI FT-ICR MS was utilized to determine the most abundant higher molecular weight compounds. The different obtained pyrolysis liquids (aqueous and oily) had various volatile and nonvolatile compounds such as acetic acid, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 2-methoxyphenol, and cannabidiol. This study provides a detailed understanding of the chemical composition of pyrolysis liquids from different parts of the industrial hemp plant and assesses their possible economic potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: pyrolysis liquid; slow pyrolysis; industrial hemp; chemical characterization; NMR; GC-MS; APPI FT-ICR MS; volatile compounds; nonvolatile compounds; economic assessment pyrolysis liquid; slow pyrolysis; industrial hemp; chemical characterization; NMR; GC-MS; APPI FT-ICR MS; volatile compounds; nonvolatile compounds; economic assessment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Salami, A.; Heikkinen, J.; Tomppo, L.; Hyttinen, M.; Kekäläinen, T.; Jänis, J.; Vepsäläinen, J.; Lappalainen, R. A Comparative Study of Pyrolysis Liquids by Slow Pyrolysis of Industrial Hemp Leaves, Hurds and Roots. Molecules 2021, 26, 3167. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113167

AMA Style

Salami A, Heikkinen J, Tomppo L, Hyttinen M, Kekäläinen T, Jänis J, Vepsäläinen J, Lappalainen R. A Comparative Study of Pyrolysis Liquids by Slow Pyrolysis of Industrial Hemp Leaves, Hurds and Roots. Molecules. 2021; 26(11):3167. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113167

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salami, Ayobami, Jorma Heikkinen, Laura Tomppo, Marko Hyttinen, Timo Kekäläinen, Janne Jänis, Jouko Vepsäläinen, and Reijo Lappalainen. 2021. "A Comparative Study of Pyrolysis Liquids by Slow Pyrolysis of Industrial Hemp Leaves, Hurds and Roots" Molecules 26, no. 11: 3167. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113167

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop