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Open AccessArticle

Phosphoric Acid Activated Carbon from Melia azedarach Waste Sawdust for Adsorptive Removal of Reactive Orange 16: Equilibrium Modelling and Thermodynamic Analysis

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Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, KPK 22060, Pakistan
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hail, Hail, Hail Province 55476, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, KPK 22060, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Science, IESE, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Haripur, Haripur, KPK 22620, Pakistan
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Department of Botany, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Azad Kashmir 12500, Pakistan
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School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lee D. D. Wilson
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092118
Received: 28 March 2020 / Revised: 27 April 2020 / Accepted: 28 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Applications of Polymers)
Waste wood biomass as precursor for manufacturing activated carbon (AC) can provide a solution to ever increasing global water quality concerns. In our current work, Melia azedarach derived phosphoric acid-treated AC (MA-AC400) was manufactured at a laboratory scale. This novel MA-AC400 was tested for RO16 dye removal performance as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration in a batch scale arrangement. MA-AC400 was characterized via scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence spectroscopy. MA-AC400 is characterized as mesoporous with BET surface area of 293.13 m2 g−1 and average pore width of 20.33 Å. pHPZC and Boehm titration confirm the acidic surface charges with dominance of phenolic functional groups. The average DLS particle size of MA-AC400 was found in the narrow range of 0.12 to 0.30 µm and this polydispersity was confirmed with multiple excitation fluorescence wavelengths. MA-AC400 showed equilibrium adsorption efficiency of 97.8% for RO16 dye at its initial concentration of 30 mg L−1 and adsorbent dose of 1 g L−1. Thermodynamic study endorsed the spontaneous, favorable, irreversible and exothermic process for RO16 adsorption onto MA-AC400. Equilibrium adsorption data was better explained by Langmuir with high goodness of fit (R2, 0.9964) and this fitness was endorsed with lower error functions. The kinetics data was found well fitted to pseudo-second order (PSO), and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. Increasing diffusion constant values confirm the intraparticle diffusion at higher RO16 initial concentration and reverse was true for PSO chemisorption kinetics. MA-AC400 exhibited low desorption with studied eluents and its cost was calculated to be $8.36/kg. View Full-Text
Keywords: isotherm and kinetics modelling; activated carbon; waste sawdust; error analysis; ortho-phosphoric acid; reactive orange 16 isotherm and kinetics modelling; activated carbon; waste sawdust; error analysis; ortho-phosphoric acid; reactive orange 16
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shah, J.A.; Butt, T.A.; Mirza, C.R.; Shaikh, A.J.; Khan, M.S.; Arshad, M.; Riaz, N.; Haroon, H.; Gardazi, S.M.H.; Yaqoob, K.; Bilal, M. Phosphoric Acid Activated Carbon from Melia azedarach Waste Sawdust for Adsorptive Removal of Reactive Orange 16: Equilibrium Modelling and Thermodynamic Analysis. Molecules 2020, 25, 2118. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092118

AMA Style

Shah JA, Butt TA, Mirza CR, Shaikh AJ, Khan MS, Arshad M, Riaz N, Haroon H, Gardazi SMH, Yaqoob K, Bilal M. Phosphoric Acid Activated Carbon from Melia azedarach Waste Sawdust for Adsorptive Removal of Reactive Orange 16: Equilibrium Modelling and Thermodynamic Analysis. Molecules. 2020; 25(9):2118. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shah, Jehanzeb A.; Butt, Tayyab A.; Mirza, Cyrus R.; Shaikh, Ahson J.; Khan, Muhammad S.; Arshad, Muhammad; Riaz, Nadia; Haroon, Hajira; Gardazi, Syed M.H.; Yaqoob, Khurram; Bilal, Muhammad. 2020. "Phosphoric Acid Activated Carbon from Melia azedarach Waste Sawdust for Adsorptive Removal of Reactive Orange 16: Equilibrium Modelling and Thermodynamic Analysis" Molecules 25, no. 9: 2118. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092118

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