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Article

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity and Efflux Pump Reversal of Thymol and Carvacrol against Staphylococcus aureus and Their Toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

1
Laboratory of Semi-Arid Bioprospecting (LABSEMA), Regional University of Cariri-URCA, Crato 63105-000, CE, Brazil
2
Graduate Program in Biological Sciences-PPGCB, Federal University of Pernambuco-UFPE, Recife 50670-901, PE, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology (LMBM), Regional University of Cariri-URCA, Crato 63105-000, CE, Brazil
4
Laboratory of Microorganism Genetics (LGM), Federal University of Paraiba-UFPB, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil
5
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
6
Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Severina Pacifico and Simona Piccolella
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092103
Received: 9 April 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Bioactives: Chemical Challenges and Bio-Opportunities)
The antibacterial activity and efflux pump reversal of thymol and carvacrol were investigated against the Staphylococcus aureus IS-58 strain in this study, as well as their toxicity against Drosophila melanogaster. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth microdilution method, while efflux pump inhibition was assessed by reduction of the antibiotic and ethidium bromide (EtBr) MICs. D. melanogaster toxicity was tested using the fumigation method. Both thymol and carvacrol presented antibacterial activities with MICs of 72 and 256 µg/mL, respectively. The association between thymol and tetracycline demonstrated synergism, while the association between carvacrol and tetracycline presented antagonism. The compound and EtBr combinations did not differ from controls. Thymol and carvacrol toxicity against D. melanogaster were evidenced with EC50 values of 17.96 and 16.97 µg/mL, respectively, with 48 h of exposure. In conclusion, the compounds presented promising antibacterial activity against the tested strain, although no efficacy was observed in terms of efflux pump inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial resistance; efflux pumps; terpenoids; thymol; carvacrol bacterial resistance; efflux pumps; terpenoids; thymol; carvacrol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sousa Silveira, Z.d.; Macêdo, N.S.; Sampaio dos Santos, J.F.; Sampaio de Freitas, T.; Rodrigues dos Santos Barbosa, C.; Júnior, D.L.d.S.; Muniz, D.F.; Castro de Oliveira, L.C.; Júnior, J.P.S.; Cunha, F.A.B.d.; Melo Coutinho, H.D.; Balbino, V.Q.; Martins, N. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity and Efflux Pump Reversal of Thymol and Carvacrol against Staphylococcus aureus and Their Toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Molecules 2020, 25, 2103. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092103

AMA Style

Sousa Silveira Zd, Macêdo NS, Sampaio dos Santos JF, Sampaio de Freitas T, Rodrigues dos Santos Barbosa C, Júnior DLdS, Muniz DF, Castro de Oliveira LC, Júnior JPS, Cunha FABd, Melo Coutinho HD, Balbino VQ, Martins N. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity and Efflux Pump Reversal of Thymol and Carvacrol against Staphylococcus aureus and Their Toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Molecules. 2020; 25(9):2103. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sousa Silveira, Zildene d.; Macêdo, Nair S.; Sampaio dos Santos, Joycy F.; Sampaio de Freitas, Thiago; Rodrigues dos Santos Barbosa, Cristina; Júnior, Dárcio L.d.S.; Muniz, Débora F.; Castro de Oliveira, Lígia C.; Júnior, José P.S.; Cunha, Francisco A.B.d.; Melo Coutinho, Henrique D.; Balbino, Valdir Q.; Martins, Natália. 2020. "Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity and Efflux Pump Reversal of Thymol and Carvacrol against Staphylococcus aureus and Their Toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster" Molecules 25, no. 9: 2103. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092103

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