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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Activity of the Most Cytotoxic Fraction of Pistachio Hull Extract in Breast Cancer

1
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad 917568, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Severina Pacifico and Simona Piccolella
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081776
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Bioactives: Chemical Challenges and Bio-Opportunities)
Pistacia (Pistacia vera) hulls (PV) is a health product that has been determined to contain bioactive phytochemicals which have fundamental importance for biomedical use. In this study, PV ethyl acetate extraction (PV-EA) fractions were evaluated with the use of an MTT assay to find the most cytotoxic fraction, which was found to be F13b1/PV-EA. After that, HPTLC was used for identify the most active compounds. The antioxidant activity was analyzed with DPPH and ABTS tests. Apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells by F13b1/PV-EA was validated via flow cytometry analysis and a distinctive nuclear staining method. The representation of genes like Caspase 3, Caspase 8, Bax, Bcl-2, CAT and SOD was assessed via a reverse transcription (RT_PCR) method. Inhabitation of Tubo breast cancer cell development was examined in the BALB-neuT mouse with histopathology observations. The most abundant active components available in our extract were gallic acid and the flavonoid quercetin. The F13b1/PV-EA has antiradical activity evidence by its inhibition of ABTS and DPPH free radicals. F13b1/PV-EA displayed against MCF-7 a suppressive effect with an IC50 value of 15.2 ± 1.35 µg/mL. Also, the expression of CAT, SOD, Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased. F13b1/PV-EA dose-dependently inhibited tumor development in cancer-induced mice. Thus, this finding introduces F13b1/PV-EA as an effectual apoptosis and antitumor active agent against breast cancer.
Keywords: pistacia (Pistacia vera) hulls; breast cancer; anticancer pistacia (Pistacia vera) hulls; breast cancer; anticancer
MDPI and ACS Style

Seifaddinipour, M.; Farghadani, R.; Namvar, F.; Bin Mohamad, J.; Muhamad, N.A. In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Activity of the Most Cytotoxic Fraction of Pistachio Hull Extract in Breast Cancer. Molecules 2020, 25, 1776.

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