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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Activity of the Most Cytotoxic Fraction of Pistachio Hull Extract in Breast Cancer

Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad 917568, Iran
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Severina Pacifico and Simona Piccolella
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1776;
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Bioactives: Chemical Challenges and Bio-Opportunities)
Pistacia (Pistacia vera) hulls (PV) is a health product that has been determined to contain bioactive phytochemicals which have fundamental importance for biomedical use. In this study, PV ethyl acetate extraction (PV-EA) fractions were evaluated with the use of an MTT assay to find the most cytotoxic fraction, which was found to be F13b1/PV-EA. After that, HPTLC was used for identify the most active compounds. The antioxidant activity was analyzed with DPPH and ABTS tests. Apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells by F13b1/PV-EA was validated via flow cytometry analysis and a distinctive nuclear staining method. The representation of genes like Caspase 3, Caspase 8, Bax, Bcl-2, CAT and SOD was assessed via a reverse transcription (RT_PCR) method. Inhabitation of Tubo breast cancer cell development was examined in the BALB-neuT mouse with histopathology observations. The most abundant active components available in our extract were gallic acid and the flavonoid quercetin. The F13b1/PV-EA has antiradical activity evidence by its inhibition of ABTS and DPPH free radicals. F13b1/PV-EA displayed against MCF-7 a suppressive effect with an IC50 value of 15.2 ± 1.35 µg/mL. Also, the expression of CAT, SOD, Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased. F13b1/PV-EA dose-dependently inhibited tumor development in cancer-induced mice. Thus, this finding introduces F13b1/PV-EA as an effectual apoptosis and antitumor active agent against breast cancer.
Keywords: pistacia (Pistacia vera) hulls; breast cancer; anticancer pistacia (Pistacia vera) hulls; breast cancer; anticancer
MDPI and ACS Style

Seifaddinipour, M.; Farghadani, R.; Namvar, F.; Bin Mohamad, J.; Muhamad, N.A. In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Activity of the Most Cytotoxic Fraction of Pistachio Hull Extract in Breast Cancer. Molecules 2020, 25, 1776.

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