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Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase, Anti-Cholinesterase and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oils of Six Algerian Plants
Open AccessArticle

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Peels of Three Citrus Species

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy
2
Department for the Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova, Italy
3
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Palatucci, 98168 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081890
Received: 21 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 19 April 2020
Background: Fruit peels are generally underutilized byproducts of the food industry, although they are valuable sources of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new application for three Citrus peel EOs as bio-herbicides. Methods: After a micro-morphological evaluation of Citrus peels by SEM analysis, the phytochemical composition of the EOs of Citrus × bergamia Risso & Poit., Citrus × myrtifolia Raf., and Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck was characterized by GC/FID and GC/MS analyses. The in vitro phytotoxicity against germination and initial radical elongation of several crop and weed species was evaluated. Furthermore, the eco-compatibility of these EOs has been assessed by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Results: SEM analysis highlighted the morphometric differences of the schizolysigenous pockets among the peels of the three Citrus species. Oxygenated monoterpenes are the main constituents in C. × bergamia (51.09%), whereas monoterpene hydrocarbons represent the most abundant compounds in C. × myrtifolia (82.15%) and C. limon (80.33%) EOs. They showed marked and selective phytotoxic activity in vitro, often at very low concentration (0.1 μg/mL) against all plant species investigated, without showing any toxicity on Artemia salina, opening the perspective of their use as safe bio-herbicides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus limon; Citrus × bergamia; Citrus × myrtifolia; essential oil; phytotoxicity; eco-compatibility Citrus limon; Citrus × bergamia; Citrus × myrtifolia; essential oil; phytotoxicity; eco-compatibility
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Caputo, L.; Cornara, L.; Bazzicalupo, M.; De Francesco, C.; De Feo, V.; Trombetta, D.; Smeriglio, A. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Peels of Three Citrus Species. Molecules 2020, 25, 1890.

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